The public debate about the ethics of cloning begins with a sheep. 1996 presented the cell biologist Ian Wilmut, the world’s first cloned creatures: Dolly the sheep is the identical copy of another sheep. Some celebrate Dolly’s existence as a triumph of science, others see them as unforgivable intervention in nature. The way to clone human paved seems, for now, it goes very fast: clone mice, clone-clone cattle and pigs follow. Farmers are fascinated: In cloned animals is desired characteristics were genetically pre-program and guarantee. Even pets are copied: A clone-cat is to show that the future must no longer say goodbye to the beloved pet.
This rapid development raises existential questions and stoking fears of a sinister development: Will soon genetically optimized designer baby conceived? We meet at some point on the road our genetic doppelganger? In short: Can a man be a copy? No, there are reputable scientists agree. In more than 30 countries, including Germany, reproductive cloning is prohibited under penalty. Not only the ethical concerns, the risks are great. Countless miscarriages would go successfully exhausting a clone babies progress. The child may suffer from deformities and diseases. Terrible scenarios that deter at least serious scientists.
the euphoria of the animal cloned researcher was soon followed by disillusionment: Many of the retort animals, including sheep Dolly, age quickly and suffer from diseases and deformities. They die in the womb or have to be euthanized prematurely. The technology is changing frequently improved, but remains expensive and lossy. A mass production of cloned animals is not in sight
clone tissue with stem cells
But the research continues. Today, scientists focus on therapeutic cloning: stem cells derived from embryos, to fight incurable diseases such as Alzheimer’s, diabetes and Parkinson’s. The idea: Cloned cells to replace damaged tissue in the body of the patient. The advantage: It is no longer rejected by the immune system of the patient, as they have the same DNA as the donor of the nucleus. Early 2014 is cloned sheep Dolly highly topical again – because the method of its production has arrived finally in humans. Researchers at the “New York Stem Cell Foundation” produced with the same principle for the first time human omnipotent stem cells. In principle, these can be converted into any other tissues. They are taken from the patient to the body’s cells to produce, for example, from the skin.
This skin cells are introduced into a donated and previously enucleated oocyte. The prepared egg is activated and begins to divide, the germ of human life arises: An embryo. Here separates the practice of therapeutic cloning of the idea to copy a human. Instead of transferring the embryo into a woman’s uterus, resulting stem cells are extracted. These can be developed into various cell types, such as to nerve or muscle cells. The New York researchers from the insulin-producing pancreatic stem cells for a patient with intractable diabetes ago. However, in the experiment were only a few functional cells are collected – from a general cure for diabetes so you are still far away.
What is Alzheimer’s
Alzheimer’s disease, named after the German neurologist Alois Alzheimer, is a organic brain disease.
How common is Alzheimer’s? “>
Where the society is aging badly, there are accordingly many sufferers: In Germany alone, there are approximately 1.4 million patients
What is the difference between Alzheimer’s and dementia
Alzheimer’s disease is only one possible cause of dementia – but by far the most common. Well over 50 percent of dementia cases are due to Alzheimer’s. The second most common form is vascular dementia, occur in small infarcts in the brain
How to recognize Alzheimer’s
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memory and disorientation are the main symptoms. In addition, often occur speech disorders and personality changes to
Are there preventive measures
a protection, such as a vaccine, there is not in Alzheimer’s disease. Among other things, but can reduce the risk of developing physical activity, a low-cholesterol diet and, if necessary, treatment of high blood pressure.
Another way to the coveted stem cells: Researchers have figured out how to program is mature cells genetically novel and can provide so again on young and healthy. These amazing little modifications are needed. So be prepared from the cells of the body of the patient fresh cell replacement breed without requiring an ovum is necessary. However, it is not clear how stable the fabric formed of them really is. Another approach: Some breed hundred cell cultures from embryos that were left in artificial insemination. Does a patient such cells, the appropriate culture would be selected, similar to an organ donation. The downside: Because it does not are his own, the cells are never perfectly match the receiver
The research on the best way to the coveted stem cells is in full. underway. Similarly, the ethical debate: opponents of cloning point to the danger of misuse of the technology that the very principle of the uniqueness of every human being in question. For the vague hope of a medical breakthrough countless embryos would have to be killed. The Catholic church about Stresses every embryo is a living being, whether in vitro or in the womb. Proponents argue, however, it is unethical not to explore the possibilities of therapeutic cloning. So let it pass the chance to cure serious diseases sometime. Cloning is the way to the next revolution in medical technology.