450 years ago was born the Italian astronomer Galileo Galilei. He laid the foundation for the modern picture of the universe. Only in 1992 could the Catholic Church make their peace with him.
The year 1564 has set outstanding key figures of European art and history of science. On 18 February dies with the genius Michelangelo one of the most versatile Italian artist of all time. Three days earlier – as in the same year, the British playwright William Shakespeare – Galileo Galilei sees the light of day. A star of science is thus born in the Tuscan Pisa, 450 years ago, on 15 Februar 1564th At Galileo’s birthday can be seen on the hills overlooking Florence’s Villa.
From Galileo should be one of the greatest astronomers, mathematicians, physicists and philosophers. His inventions and discoveries were partly revolutionary, the Vatican stamps him as a heretic – and then took centuries to eradicate this evil error. Europe bows so before his great pioneer: it calls his billion-major project of satellite navigation “Galileo”
The founder of modern physics based experiments has been dedicated as a student to the laws of pendulum oscillations, examines the case law and invent the hydrostatic balance for the specific gravities. At the age of just 28, the talented Tuscan is in Padua professor, discovered by him with an improved telescope Mountains of the Moon and the phases of Venus.
Milky Way as a milestone
A milestone is his realization that countless stars forming the Milky Way. Besides, he also invents a lot of curiosities, such as an automatic tomato picker or a small pocket comb, which can also be used as cutlery. 1615, when he five years is already active in Florence, his conflict begins with the Vatican.
His main work should be “dialogue on the two great world systems” of. Galileo creates it with his intense gaze into the solar system to prove scientifically what has been put forward by Nicolaus Copernicus in 1514 as Theory: The sun is the star of our system to revolve around the all the planets including the earth. The heliocentric worldview. This, however, seems to contradict the Bible. The papal Inquisition condemned Galileo’s departure from the “Ptolemaic world view” as a mistake, forbids him spreading his teachings and sets the font Copernicus on the Index.
But the Tuscan astronomer does not let up, continues to study the solar system and ends up as a decisive showdown in court. That the star-gazers and tinkerers, son of a musician from a Pisan patrician family, studied with the improved his own telescope from Holland the Milky Way and the lunar surface, the first four moons of Jupiter discovered and sunspots devoted, which had all the powerful Vatican quite like .
center of the universe
The papal scholars initially estimated the founder of modern astronomy. But that changed when the unswerving Galileo Galilei brought the world view of the Catholic Church to case. There, it was believed at the time or that the earth will be the center of the universe and that everything would turn it over.
The second time bringing the Jesuits as well as diligent scholars rebellious against the Vatican’s Justice. 1633 judges the Inquisition, he must renounce. It is still unclear whether Galileo, initially sentenced to a prison term, which he wrested from the abjuration has really acknowledged since the world-famous slogan “si muove Eppur”: “And it (the earth) moves!”.
After all, Pope Urban been gracious enough to convert the sentence into a kind of house arrest: The heretical scientist is banished only to his beautiful country seat in Arcetri, near Florence. Nine years later, on 8 January 1642, died in the meantime blind scientist who laid the foundation for the worldview of the modern period, at the age of 77 years.
“In good faith”
And the Vatican? More than 350 years had to pass before the Catholic Church in 1992 was able to make its peace with Galileo. “Oddly enough, Galileo proved to be a sincere believer far-sighted than his theological opponents,” remarked Pope John Paul II in a historic reparation speech on 31 October 1992.
“Never again a case of Galileo,” with these words was the Polish Pope reconcile religion and science. Some were disappointed, however, about the fact that John Paul II said that Galileo’s judges were “in good faith” traded in her trial against him. The now trying to increase transparency Vatican was later released all the files on the negotiations against the “heretic” Galileo Galilei. The genius mind of Galileo Galilei, a variety of ground-breaking, sometimes curious inventions and discoveries owe, especially in astronomy. Galileo came up with a proportional compass for the practical solution of mathematical problems, laid the foundation stone for the pen, developed as a preform of the thermometer in 1606, a first “thermoscope.”
addition, Galileo put a mirror so skillfully that the light could be guided by candles by a whole house. He developed a pocket comb, which could also serve as cutlery, and tinkering around an automatic tomato pickers from.
crater on the moon
In fishtailing he recognized the connection between pendulum length and oscillation period. On the law of free fall, he came in 1590. For astronomy most important was that Galileo advanced a Dutch telescope and improved. This fantastic astronomical discoveries were possible.
So Galileo was able to show that there are craters on the lunar surface and that of the sunspots. The astronomer was so “imperfect” celestial body – it was but previously assumed ideal spherical surfaces
Very important was also the realization that the Milky Way is not a diffuse nebula – as indeed appears to the naked eye – but rather consists of many individual stars. The genius Galileo discovered with his telescope also that the giant planet Jupiter is orbited by four moons.
From the observation of the phases of Venus, Galileo concluded correctly that this planet around the sun must – and not the Earth. The vast majority of his discoveries had the church did not bother. For heretics he was only because of his astronomical evidence that the Earth was not the center of the universe is flat, but revolves around the sun.
The best gift for milestone birthday: This year, the European navigation system “Galileo” comes first with 18 satellites in operation